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  • COFFEE GUIDE Q AND A

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    Questions - with answers provided by coffee experts
     

    01 - World coffee trade

    QA 019
    Can one use differentials to quantify the real impact of quality or marketing improvement measures?
    QA 031
    Where to find visual information on the coffee industry?
    QA 037
    When does a “crop year” start?
    QA 038
    Why is coffee not sold in currencies other than the US Dollar?
    QA 041
    When does the coffee crop in Togo start?
    QA 049
    Why is it said (September 2005) that prices have recovered when in fact they are falling?
    QA 056
    How is green coffee exported?
    QA 066
    Please provide some insight in the production, shipping and distribution of Guatemalan coffee for North America, particularly Canada.
    QA 068
    Why does the International Coffee Organization (ICO) publish four different coffee prices?
    QA 069
    Can you include coverage of coffee agronomy and research in www.thecoffeeguide.org?
    QA 072
    How are world coffee prices determined and why are there no futures markets in coffee producing countries?
    QA 075
    What are the possibilities of producing soluble coffee in Ethiopia and what would this require?
    QA 077
    What is the significance of the ICO reference numbers found on bags of green coffee?
    QA 078
    How to specify delivery of an ICO Certificate of Origin under a documentary credit?
    QA 079
    What prevents growers from marketing finished product direct to (wholesale) consumers?
    QA 080
    Where to find coffee price information, for free…
    QA 082
    What are the usual border controls on coffee and why have them?
    QA 084
    Can you give production and domestic consumption figures for Indonesia and Malaysia?
    QA 085
    How much specialty coffee does the world consume?
    QA 091
    Please provide some data on the Spanish market for coffee.
    QA 112
    Do any guidelines exist for the setting of producer or farm gate prices?
    QA 118
    What drives the (price) difference between the markets for arabica and robusta coffee?
    QA 120
    Do Cecafe and the public auctions play a role in the setting of producer prices in Brazil?
    QA 122
    Where can students find statistics on the coffee market?
    QA 123
    Does growing concentration on the production side pose a risk to smaller producing countries?
    QA 132
    What is the size of the world market for decaffeinated coffee?
    QA 137
    Why are there differences between the disappearance and final inventory figures in section 02.01.03 of the Guide, and the ICO data base?
    QA 138
    Where to find charts showing coffee production areas and their ports of shipment?
    QA 142
    What is the function of ‘middlemen’ in the coffee chain? Are they necessary?
    QA 148
    Why is price correlation between Brazilian robusta and the London futures market so low?
    QA 149
    How to establish/operate a database for coffee?
    QA 153
    Please provide data on coffee imports into Australia.
    QA 156
    Is there a ‘world price’ for coffee?
    QA 157
    What margins do importers make?
    QA 158
    Where to find training courses aimed at green coffee procurement staff?
    QA 159
    What effect will the expiry of the Cotonou Agreement (end 2007) have on coffee exports to the European Union?
    QA 160
    What is the object of Brazil’s PEPRO coffee auctions?
    QA 161
    Will significant price rises trigger increased production? If so, will that come from already established producers or will new producers enter the market as well?
    QA 167
    What is the volume and structure of the coffee trade between Vietnam and The Netherlands?
    QA 174
    When was The Coffee Guide last updated?
    QA 188
    Who along the coffee value chain gets what portion of the retail price?
    QA 189
    Would producers benefit from sales in currencies other than the US dollar?
    QA 190
    Where does Vietnam rank in terms of world production?
    QA 194
    How much arabica and robusta does Japan import from Indonesia?
    QA 198
    Does the imposition of an export tax affect CIF or FOB prices? What about already existing contracts?
    QA 202
    Will coffee prices be influenced by the current (2008) financial crisis?
    QA 203
    Can you provide coffee import statistics for Morocco?
    QA 211
    How does biennial bearing impact on coffee production?
    QA 212
    Can brokers usefully link coffee producers and importers on a commission basis?
    QA 213
    How can brokers/agents safeguard against being cut out of the loop after bringing exporters/importers together? And, can they charge commission to both?
    QA 219
    What impact could current high prices for Colombian coffee have?
    QA 220
    How does the market appreciate Puerto Rican coffee?
    QA 222
    Are certifications improving farmers’ net incomes?
    QA 225
    How does the El Niño phenomenon impact on coffee production?
    QA 228
    Where to find statistics on the role of women in the coffee sector?
    QA 234
    Will increased production in Colombia affect prices negatively?
    QA 236
    Where to find information on world coffee prices?
    QA 237
    Why do some producing countries use altitude in their descriptions and others bean size?
     

    02 - The markets for coffee

    QA 001
    Is all coffee equally suitable for decaffeination ?
    QA 007
    Where to find coffee import data and details of the market structure for major European markets ?
    QA 024
    Why do some differentials ease when futures prices rise?
    QA 030
    How to identify technical consultancy services for the establishment of instant coffee production facilities?
    QA 031
    Where to find visual information on the coffee industry?
    QA 032
    How to approach potential buyers?
    QA 033
    How to identify arabica buyers?
    QA 038
    Why is coffee not sold in currencies other than the US Dollar?
    QA 045
    Do retail price reductions for roasted coffee hurt growers?
    QA 052
    How do producing and consuming countries, and the ICO, promote coffee consumption?
    QA 056
    How is green coffee exported?
    QA 057
    Where to find really detailed information on imports into different consumer markets?
    QA 059
    What marketing strategy for good quality arabica?
    QA 064
    In percentage terms, how much soluble coffee can be extracted from roasted coffee beans?
    QA 066
    Please provide some insight in the production, shipping and distribution of Guatemalan coffee for North America, particularly Canada.
    QA 073
    How to go about identifying good quality roasted coffee for the Moroccan market?
    QA 075
    What are the possibilities of producing soluble coffee in Ethiopia and what would this require?
    QA 076
    Where can we find statistical information on coffee consumption for specific countries?
    QA 079
    What prevents growers from marketing finished product direct to (wholesale) consumers?
    QA 081
    Why is green coffee blended?
    QA 083
    What is the relationship between blending, and flavour or taste profiles?
    QA 086
    How to market specialty coffee domestically in a producing country?
    QA 087
    Where to find suppliers, specifications and quotes for complete roasting and packaging lines?
    QA 089
    What is the role and importance of chicory in the coffee industry?
    QA 091
    Please provide some data on the Spanish market for coffee.
    QA 094
    How to find foreign buyers for (good quality) coffee?
    QA 095
    What are the caffeine levels in soluble coffee?
    QA 100
    In a Code of Conduct or coffee standard, what is the difference between certification and verification?
    QA 102
    Does ‘certification’ by itself enhance a coffee’s marketability (value, price, quality) ?
    QA 113
    Can Internet Coffee Sellers be listed in www.thecoffeeguide.org?
    QA 116
    How should one approach the Japanese market?
    QA 118
    What drives the (price) difference between the markets for arabica and robusta coffee?
    QA 121
    What, if any, is the difference between 'powder coffee' and 'soluble coffee'?
    QA 122
    Where can students find statistics on the coffee market?
    QA 124
    How much organic coffee is sold in France?
    QA 131
    How to differentiate between the mainstream and the specialty industry?
    QA 132
    What is the size of the world market for decaffeinated coffee?
    QA 134
    What duties are payable and what documentation do US Customs require to clear green coffee imports?
    QA 136
    What is the market for natural caffeine?
    QA 137
    Why are there differences between the disappearance and final inventory figures in section 02.01.03 of the Guide, and the ICO data base?
    QA 140
    Why is the teabag system not used in the coffee sector?
    QA 141
    What is the demand for certified coffee like Utz Kapeh, and what drives major players to take an interest?
    QA 142
    What is the function of ‘middlemen’ in the coffee chain? Are they necessary?
    QA 144
    Are consumer tastes in Germany changing?
    QA 147
    What are the advantages and limits of (brand) loyalty in coffee marketing?
    QA 148
    Why is price correlation between Brazilian robusta and the London futures market so low?
    QA 153
    Please provide data on coffee imports into Australia.
    QA 157
    What margins do importers make?
    QA 159
    What effect will the expiry of the Cotonou Agreement (end 2007) have on coffee exports to the European Union?
    QA 160
    What is the object of Brazil’s PEPRO coffee auctions?
    QA 162
    Organic coffee - where are the main producers?
    QA 163
    Why vacuum-pack coffee?
    QA 165
    How has the Central American coffee industry changed in recent years in the face of new consumption tendencies?
    QA 167
    What is the volume and structure of the coffee trade between Vietnam and The Netherlands?
    QA 171
    What regulations apply to Brazilian coffee imported into the USA?
    QA 188
    Who along the coffee value chain gets what portion of the retail price?
    QA 189
    Would producers benefit from sales in currencies other than the US dollar?
    QA 190
    Where does Vietnam rank in terms of world production?
    QA 191
    What are the functions and responsibilities of brokers?
    QA 194
    How much arabica and robusta does Japan import from Indonesia?
    QA 202
    Will coffee prices be influenced by the current (2008) financial crisis?
    QA 203
    Can you provide coffee import statistics for Morocco?
    QA 211
    How does biennial bearing impact on coffee production?
    QA 212
    Can brokers usefully link coffee producers and importers on a commission basis?
    QA 213
    How can brokers/agents safeguard against being cut out of the loop after bringing exporters/importers together? And, can they charge commission to both?
    QA 219
    What impact could current high prices for Colombian coffee have?
    QA 232
    Is the quality of Brazilian specialty coffee progressing?
    QA 234
    Will increased production in Colombia affect prices negatively?
    QA 236
    Where to find information on world coffee prices?
    QA 242
    What are the terms of trade and premium for 4C-Compliant Coffee?

     

    03 - Niche markets, environment and social aspects

    QA 007
    Where to find coffee import data and details of the market structure for major European markets ?
    QA 009
    Can a geographical (district or area) name be trademarked?
    QA 011
    Can one register a district (or area name) as a Trademark or a Collective Mark in the United States? At what cost and how?
    QA 015
    How to register trademarks in the EU and what is the cost ?
    QA 027
    What are the pros and cons of exclusive marketing arrangements?
    QA 029
    How to approach the Italian market?
    QA 032
    How to approach potential buyers?
    QA 033
    How to identify arabica buyers?
    QA 036
    How to start promoting a new specialty coffee?
    QA 039
    What effect will rising production of organic coffee have on premia and, what is being done to reduce the cost of certification?
    QA 044
    How to register a trademark in Japan and at what cost?
    QA 047
    How can growers minimize the cost of organic certification?
    QA 048
    Does it pay to exhibit at coffee trade shows?
    QA 052
    How do producing and consuming countries, and the ICO, promote coffee consumption?
    QA 057
    Where to find really detailed information on imports into different consumer markets?
    QA 059
    What marketing strategy for good quality arabica?
    QA 065
    How to find buyers in Europe or North America for Malawi specialty grade coffee?
    QA 073
    How to go about identifying good quality roasted coffee for the Moroccan market?
    QA 074
    Which Geographical Positioning Equipment (GPS) to use and where to find it?
    QA 081
    Why is green coffee blended?
    QA 085
    How much specialty coffee does the world consume?
    QA 086
    How to market specialty coffee domestically in a producing country?
    QA 087
    Where to find suppliers, specifications and quotes for complete roasting and packaging lines?
    QA 100
    In a Code of Conduct or coffee standard, what is the difference between certification and verification?
    QA 102
    Does ‘certification’ by itself enhance a coffee’s marketability (value, price, quality) ?
    QA 110
    What is the difference between gourmet coffee and specialty coffee?
    QA 114
    Is espresso coffee ‘specialty’ or ‘mainstream’?
    QA 116
    How should one approach the Japanese market?
    QA 124
    How much organic coffee is sold in France?
    QA 128
    What is the exact difference between a Trademark and a Geographic Indication?
    QA 131
    How to differentiate between the mainstream and the specialty industry?
    QA 140
    Why is the teabag system not used in the coffee sector?
    QA 141
    What is the demand for certified coffee like Utz Kapeh, and what drives major players to take an interest?
    QA 144
    Are consumer tastes in Germany changing?
    QA 147
    What are the advantages and limits of (brand) loyalty in coffee marketing?
    QA 150
    For robusta, is there any difference in yield between dry and wet processing?
    QA 151
    How to enter the export market for organic coffee?
    QA 154
    Is the USDA changing the Internal Inspection System (ICS) arrangement for organic smallholder coffee?
    QA 162
    Organic coffee - where are the main producers?
    QA 165
    How has the Central American coffee industry changed in recent years in the face of new consumption tendencies?
    QA 166
    How to promote premium coffee in a price-conscious environment?
    QA 168
    How to export very small lots, say 50 bags or less?
    QA 173
    Where to find help in growing coffee from seed in Australia?
    QA 176
    Is the entry of the McDonald’s Corporation into specialty coffee positive for the coffee industry?
    QA 183
    What rules and norms apply to the import of organic coffee into Japan?
    QA 192
    Can coffee growers, especially smallholders, benefit from carbon offsets?
    QA 205
    Are there any Internet auctions that market specialty coffee?
    QA 214
    What is the average cost of the coffee certification process?
    QA 220
    How does the market appreciate Puerto Rican coffee?
    QA 222
    Are certifications improving farmers’ net incomes?
    QA 228
    Where to find statistics on the role of women in the coffee sector?
    QA 232
    Is the quality of Brazilian specialty coffee progressing?
    QA 235
    Does (organic) coffee production affect climate change?
    QA 240
    Is it advisable to concentrate on one particular client model only?
    QA 241
    Is the indication OGST (Organic/Sustainable) internationally acknowledged?
    QA 242
    What are the terms of trade and premium for 4C-Compliant Coffee?

     

    04 - Contracts

    QA 005
    Does delayed shipment due to lack of shipping space constitute Force Majeure ?
    QA 010
    Are the ECC Contract (Europe) and the GCA Contract (New York) valid for sales to markets outside Europe and North America, particularly Japan ?
    QA 014
    If a container is formally opened and resealed, can a receiver reject it ?
    QA 025
    Who is liable for extra costs caused by transit delays, for example if transhipment cargo is left behind in an intermediary port?’
    QA 027
    What are the pros and cons of exclusive marketing arrangements?
    QA 035
    Is credit risk in Europe different from in the United States?
    QA 050
    What are the consequences of a port being declared closed, i.e. New Orleans late August 2005?
    QA 058
    Why are some shipping lines abandoning ‘Less than Container Load or LCL’ in favour of ‘Full Container Load or FCL’?
    QA 061
    When damage occurs en route to an FCL shipment, who is responsible?
    QA 063
    How does piracy on the high seas affect coffee shipping and insurance costs, and who is responsible to pay any increases?
    QA 067
    In shipping, who decides what constitutes a war risk zone? And, how is this implemented?
    QA 078
    How to specify delivery of an ICO Certificate of Origin under a documentary credit?
    QA 090
    What is involved in importing small amounts of coffee directly from growers into the United States? Taxes? Licenses? Regulations?
    QA 101
    What to do about a complaint over green bean appearance one month after arrival of the coffee at destination?
    QA 105
    In shipping, if the buyer fails to declare the destination in time, what redress does the seller have?
    QA 127
    What are the different logistics aspects to watch when exporting green coffee?
    QA 143
    Why are Incoterms not used in the European coffee trade?
    QA 145
    Who is liable for missing bags when container seals and locks show no signs of tampering?
    QA 177
    Is selling shipment coffee basis ‘quality and count final on departure’ possible?
    QA 179
    On what grounds, if any, may a buyer withhold payment? *
    QA 180
    On what grounds, if any, can a buyer reject a shipment and what would the consequences be?
    QA 182
    In case of partial contract execution, what penalty if any does the European Contract for Coffee prescribe?
    QA 184
    What would an arbitrator consider when reviewing a (partial) default, i.e. failure to ship all or some of a contract?
    QA 191
    What are the functions and responsibilities of brokers?
    QA 198
    Does the imposition of an export tax affect CIF or FOB prices? What about already existing contracts?
    QA 199
    What can a buyer do when his shipper defaults?
    QA 208
    If quality deteriorates during (delayed) transit, who is responsible?
    QA 209
    Who is liable for fumigation costs on arrival of infested shipments?
    QA 215
    Damage during loading – who should initiate insurance action?
    QA 216
    Is delayed payment sufficient cause to cancel a contract?
    QA 218
    Who is responsible when bags go missing from an LCL/FCL shipment?
    QA 221
    Will reducing availability of credit insurance affect the coffee trade?
    QA 231
    How can small exporters obtain competitive ocean freight rates?
    QA 238
    Under ECC*, who is liable when arrival weights show a loss of over 0.5%? **
    QA 239
    How are damages for default (non-shipment) calculated?

     

    05 - Logistics and insurance

    QA 003
    Why is West African coffee for the US often transhipped in Europe and not routed direct ?
    QA 004
    Should desiccants (or dry-sacs) be used in containers or not ?
    QA 012
    Can one insure against loss of quality/value of coffee whilst detained under US anti-terrorism legislation ?
    QA 013
    What is the function of a container liner ?
    QA 014
    If a container is formally opened and resealed, can a receiver reject it ?
    QA 020
    Can exporters access NYBOT's Electronic Commodity Operations System: eCOPS?
    QA 025
    Who is liable for extra costs caused by transit delays, for example if transhipment cargo is left behind in an intermediary port?’
    QA 034
    What can exporters do to limit transhipment delays?
    QA 046
    Why is the use of transhipment growing?
    QA 050
    What are the consequences of a port being declared closed, i.e. New Orleans late August 2005?
    QA 055
    Why is damaged or contaminated coffee sold 'for salvage'?
    QA 058
    Why are some shipping lines abandoning ‘Less than Container Load or LCL’ in favour of ‘Full Container Load or FCL’?
    QA 061
    When damage occurs en route to an FCL shipment, who is responsible?
    QA 063
    How does piracy on the high seas affect coffee shipping and insurance costs, and who is responsible to pay any increases?
    QA 067
    In shipping, who decides what constitutes a war risk zone? And, how is this implemented?
    QA 071
    What proportion of the global trade in coffee is shipped in bulk? How much can a bulk container hold and is there a minimum tonnage requirement?
    QA 077
    What is the significance of the ICO reference numbers found on bags of green coffee?
    QA 090
    What is involved in importing small amounts of coffee directly from growers into the United States? Taxes? Licenses? Regulations?
    QA 109
    When the nearby price on the futures market is above the forward price, does this affect logistics in producing countries? If so, how?
    QA 127
    What are the different logistics aspects to watch when exporting green coffee?
    QA 143
    Why are Incoterms not used in the European coffee trade?
    QA 145
    Who is liable for missing bags when container seals and locks show no signs of tampering?
    QA 164
    Is it possible for empty containers to be loaded as normal? Are they not weighed?
    QA 168
    How to export very small lots, say 50 bags or less?
    QA 208
    If quality deteriorates during (delayed) transit, who is responsible?
    QA 209
    Who is liable for fumigation costs on arrival of infested shipments?
    QA 215
    Damage during loading – who should initiate insurance action?
    QA 218
    Who is responsible when bags go missing from an LCL/FCL shipment?
    QA 231
    How can small exporters obtain competitive ocean freight rates?
    QA 238
    Under ECC*, who is liable when arrival weights show a loss of over 0.5%? **

     

    06 - E-Commerce and supply chain management

    QA 020
    Can exporters access NYBOT's Electronic Commodity Operations System: eCOPS?
    QA 113
    Can Internet Coffee Sellers be listed in www.thecoffeeguide.org?
    QA 149
    How to establish/operate a database for coffee?
    QA 169
    Do electronic market places for green coffee exist? If so, which are they?
    QA 205
    Are there any Internet auctions that market specialty coffee?

     

    07 - Arbitration

    QA 005
    Does delayed shipment due to lack of shipping space constitute Force Majeure ?
    QA 006
    Seeking redress through arbitration - how easy is it really?
    QA 010
    Are the ECC Contract (Europe) and the GCA Contract (New York) valid for sales to markets outside Europe and North America, particularly Japan ?
    QA 101
    What to do about a complaint over green bean appearance one month after arrival of the coffee at destination?
    QA 105
    In shipping, if the buyer fails to declare the destination in time, what redress does the seller have?
    QA 179
    On what grounds, if any, may a buyer withhold payment? *
    QA 180
    On what grounds, if any, can a buyer reject a shipment and what would the consequences be?
    QA 182
    In case of partial contract execution, what penalty if any does the European Contract for Coffee prescribe?
    QA 184
    What would an arbitrator consider when reviewing a (partial) default, i.e. failure to ship all or some of a contract?
    QA 199
    What can a buyer do when his shipper defaults?
    QA 239
    How are damages for default (non-shipment) calculated?

     

    08 - Futures markets

    QA 008
    What processes are used to obtain Washed Brazils and Pulped Naturals ?
    QA 016
    How are the price differentials determined for the different origins that are tenderable against the New York C Contract?
    QA 017
    What are the advantages of an origin being ‘tenderable’ against the New York C Contract?
    QA 021
    What is meant by ‘washing out contracts’?
    QA 040
    What is “arbitrage” between the Brazilian and New York futures markets?
    QA 042
    How are differentials set for the different robusta origins that are tenderable in London? And, how does a robusta origin become ‘tenderable’?
    QA 043
    What is the effective impact of NYBOT’s August 31 2005 declaration of Force Majeure in respect of the port of New Orleans?
    QA 051
    What role do ‘investment funds’ play in the coffee trade?
    QA 054
    In market analysis, what is the difference between ‘fundamentals’ and ‘technicals’?
    QA 062
    Does ‘not hedging’ one’s green coffee stock amount to speculation?
    QA 072
    How are world coffee prices determined and why are there no futures markets in coffee producing countries?
    QA 092
    What is meant by ‘buying the switch’ in the futures market?
    QA 098
    Can exporters take advantage of ‘arbitrage’ between different futures markets?
    QA 115
    What is the purpose of ‘stopping tenders’ on the futures market?
    QA 117
    Why are US and European stocks certified for delivery against the futures markets of New York (NYBOT) and London (LIFFE)?
    QA 119
    What would be the pre-requisites for establishing a futures market in Vietnam?
    QA 126
    Can growers use Put Options to manage price risk?
    QA 130
    What are the quality parameters for coffee traded under the New York ‘C’ Contract?
    QA 133
    Is electronic trading of Coffee ‘C’ futures being introduced and, if so, what impact might this have?
    QA 135
    Could price differences occur between the open outcry and the electronic trading of the New York C Contract? Arbitrage in other words?
    QA 139
    Can one change/withdraw orders once placed in NYBOT’s new electronic ‘pre-order’ facility?
    QA 169
    Do electronic market places for green coffee exist? If so, which are they?
    QA 172
    What is the meaning and impact of a ‘squeeze’ in London robusta futures?
    QA 185
    Do margin calls impact on Price To Be Fixed or PTBF contracts?
    QA 186
    Under PTBF contracts, what if shippers ‘fix’ the price without actually owning the physical coffee that is to be supplied?
    QA 193
    Do “index speculators” affect coffee and if so, how?
    QA 197
    Why have the margin requirements for New York arabica coffee futures been raised? Will this have any influence on price fluctuations?
    QA 200
    Can options help to minimise the consequences of possible defaults?
    QA 217
    Why is Papua New Guinea Y-1 grade discounted? After all, it is tenderable at the New York basis or contract price.
    QA 223
    How are futures trading positions chosen for price fixing?
    QA 226
    How should futures transactions be accounted for?
    QA 227
    Why and how to deliver coffee from origin to the London Liffe futures market?
    QA 229
    What is ‘novation’ and how does it feature in futures trading?
    QA 230
    How are differentials determined and how to hedge them?
     

    09 - Hedging and other operations

    QA 021
    What is meant by ‘washing out contracts’?
    QA 024
    Why do some differentials ease when futures prices rise?
    QA 040
    What is “arbitrage” between the Brazilian and New York futures markets?
    QA 043
    What is the effective impact of NYBOT’s August 31 2005 declaration of Force Majeure in respect of the port of New Orleans?
    QA 051
    What role do ‘investment funds’ play in the coffee trade?
    QA 054
    In market analysis, what is the difference between ‘fundamentals’ and ‘technicals’?
    QA 062
    Does ‘not hedging’ one’s green coffee stock amount to speculation?
    QA 092
    What is meant by ‘buying the switch’ in the futures market?
    QA 098
    Can exporters take advantage of ‘arbitrage’ between different futures markets?
    QA 103
    Affordable credit for small growers versus price risk: what are the options?
    QA 109
    When the nearby price on the futures market is above the forward price, does this affect logistics in producing countries? If so, how?
    QA 115
    What is the purpose of ‘stopping tenders’ on the futures market?
    QA 117
    Why are US and European stocks certified for delivery against the futures markets of New York (NYBOT) and London (LIFFE)?
    QA 126
    Can growers use Put Options to manage price risk?
    QA 133
    Is electronic trading of Coffee ‘C’ futures being introduced and, if so, what impact might this have?
    QA 135
    Could price differences occur between the open outcry and the electronic trading of the New York C Contract? Arbitrage in other words?
    QA 139
    Can one change/withdraw orders once placed in NYBOT’s new electronic ‘pre-order’ facility?
    QA 172
    What is the meaning and impact of a ‘squeeze’ in London robusta futures?
    QA 185
    Do margin calls impact on Price To Be Fixed or PTBF contracts?
    QA 186
    Under PTBF contracts, what if shippers ‘fix’ the price without actually owning the physical coffee that is to be supplied?
    QA 193
    Do “index speculators” affect coffee and if so, how?
    QA 197
    Why have the margin requirements for New York arabica coffee futures been raised? Will this have any influence on price fluctuations?
    QA 200
    Can options help to minimise the consequences of possible defaults?
    QA 223
    How are futures trading positions chosen for price fixing?
    QA 226
    How should futures transactions be accounted for?
    QA 227
    Why and how to deliver coffee from origin to the London Liffe futures market?
    QA 229
    What is ‘novation’ and how does it feature in futures trading?
    QA 230
    How are differentials determined and how to hedge them?

     

    10 - Risk and the relation to trade credit

    QA 018
    What are the credit risks involved in direct sales?
    QA 035
    Is credit risk in Europe different from in the United States?
    QA 103
    Affordable credit for small growers versus price risk: what are the options?
    QA 216
    Is delayed payment sufficient cause to cancel a contract?
    QA 221
    Will reducing availability of credit insurance affect the coffee trade?

     

    11 - Coffee quality

    QA 001
    Is all coffee equally suitable for decaffeination ?
    QA 002
    What happens to coffee refused entry into the USA by the FDA ?
    QA 008
    What processes are used to obtain Washed Brazils and Pulped Naturals ?
    QA 019
    Can one use differentials to quantify the real impact of quality or marketing improvement measures?
    QA 022
    How to avoid parchment over-drying and loss of colour in dry, hot conditions?
    QA 023
    Does one need both a grader and a gravity table in a small milling line?
    QA 026
    Can mineral fertilization change cup characteristics?
    QA 029
    How to approach the Italian market?
    QA 039
    What effect will rising production of organic coffee have on premia and, what is being done to reduce the cost of certification?
    QA 053
    Which are the main processing systems to produce green coffee beans from coffee cherries?
    QA 060
    Would exporters of gourmet coffee benefit from sorting equipment that detects phenolic beans and other bacteria that affect the cup, but do not impact the green color of the bean?
    QA 069
    Can you include coverage of coffee agronomy and research in www.thecoffeeguide.org?
    QA 083
    What is the relationship between blending, and flavour or taste profiles?
    QA 088
    Is there a standard form for cup testing, i.e. to record coffee quality?
    QA 089
    What is the role and importance of chicory in the coffee industry?
    QA 093
    What causes phenolic taste in green coffee beans and how to combat it?
    QA 095
    What are the caffeine levels in soluble coffee?
    QA 096
    What could cause different taste experiences in (decaffeinated) coffee?
    QA 097
    How easy is it to sample for OTA in green coffee?
    QA 099
    How to differentiate between Rio flavour, phenolic taste, and ‘fermented’?
    QA 104
    In coffee tasting: when, if at all, does ‘fruity’ pass from acceptable to unacceptable?
    QA 106
    Why do some growers ‘stump’ their coffee trees?
    QA 108
    What is the conversion ratio of fresh cherry to green bean (clean coffee)?
    QA 110
    What is the difference between gourmet coffee and specialty coffee?
    QA 111
    Where to find technical information on the roasting and chemistry of coffee?
    QA 114
    Is espresso coffee ‘specialty’ or ‘mainstream’?
    QA 125
    What makes a fine coffee?
    QA 129
    How do bean density, bean processing and bean size affect roast characteristics?
    QA 146
    Why ‘steam-clean’ robusta coffee?
    QA 150
    For robusta, is there any difference in yield between dry and wet processing?
    QA 151
    How to enter the export market for organic coffee?
    QA 152
    How can cherry be pulped manually?
    QA 154
    Is the USDA changing the Internal Inspection System (ICS) arrangement for organic smallholder coffee?
    QA 155
    Is the cup quality of large beans (like Maragogype or Kenya AA) always better?
    QA 158
    Where to find training courses aimed at green coffee procurement staff?
    QA 163
    Why vacuum-pack coffee?
    QA 166
    How to promote premium coffee in a price-conscious environment?
    QA 170
    Which process was used to arrive at the conclusion that ochratoxin is mostly eliminated during roasting?
    QA 173
    Where to find help in growing coffee from seed in Australia?
    QA 175
    Does polishing add value to quality coffee?
    QA 178
    What are the differences between Pulped Natural, Semi-Washed and Washed coffee?
    QA 181
    How do destoners and catadors work?
    QA 187
    Why separate coffee beans by size during milling and then mix them again for export?
    QA 195
    What could cause ‘occasional’ foul cups in apparently sound green coffee?
    QA 196
    Do small green coffee particles affect cup taste?
    QA 201
    Does air quality affect green coffee beans?
    QA 204
    In green coffee, what is the meaning of European and American Preparation? And Brazil ‘Swedish’?
    QA 206
    Are peaberries inferior? If not, why do certain buyers object to them?
    QA 207
    Can a coffee be rejected even if the quality was formally certified at origin?
    QA 210
    Does espresso coffee contain less caffeine than traditional brews?
    QA 217
    Why is Papua New Guinea Y-1 grade discounted? After all, it is tenderable at the New York basis or contract price.
    QA 224
    What chemical changes occur during coffee processing?
    QA 233
    Would air-conditioning improve green coffee storage in hot climates?
    QA 237
    Why do some producing countries use altitude in their descriptions and others bean size?
     

    12 - Quality control issues

    QA 002
    What happens to coffee refused entry into the USA by the FDA ?
    QA 004
    Should desiccants (or dry-sacs) be used in containers or not ?
    QA 026
    Can mineral fertilization change cup characteristics?
    QA 028
    Where to find information on Pesticide Residues Regulations for Japan?
    QA 053
    Which are the main processing systems to produce green coffee beans from coffee cherries?
    QA 055
    Why is damaged or contaminated coffee sold 'for salvage'?
    QA 060
    Would exporters of gourmet coffee benefit from sorting equipment that detects phenolic beans and other bacteria that affect the cup, but do not impact the green color of the bean?
    QA 070
    Have new Pesticide Residues Regulations been published for Japan?
    QA 088
    Is there a standard form for cup testing, i.e. to record coffee quality?
    QA 093
    What causes phenolic taste in green coffee beans and how to combat it?
    QA 096
    What could cause different taste experiences in (decaffeinated) coffee?
    QA 097
    How easy is it to sample for OTA in green coffee?
    QA 099
    How to differentiate between Rio flavour, phenolic taste, and ‘fermented’?
    QA 104
    In coffee tasting: when, if at all, does ‘fruity’ pass from acceptable to unacceptable?
    QA 107
    Are there standard particle sizes for different types of ground coffee such as regular, drip or fine grind?
    QA 108
    What is the conversion ratio of fresh cherry to green bean (clean coffee)?
    QA 130
    What are the quality parameters for coffee traded under the New York ‘C’ Contract?
    QA 146
    Why ‘steam-clean’ robusta coffee?
    QA 152
    How can cherry be pulped manually?
    QA 155
    Is the cup quality of large beans (like Maragogype or Kenya AA) always better?
    QA 170
    Which process was used to arrive at the conclusion that ochratoxin is mostly eliminated during roasting?
    QA 176
    Is the entry of the McDonald’s Corporation into specialty coffee positive for the coffee industry?
    QA 177
    Is selling shipment coffee basis ‘quality and count final on departure’ possible?
    QA 178
    What are the differences between Pulped Natural, Semi-Washed and Washed coffee?
    QA 181
    How do destoners and catadors work?
    QA 183
    What rules and norms apply to the import of organic coffee into Japan?
    QA 187
    Why separate coffee beans by size during milling and then mix them again for export?
    QA 195
    What could cause ‘occasional’ foul cups in apparently sound green coffee?
    QA 196
    Do small green coffee particles affect cup taste?
    QA 201
    Does air quality affect green coffee beans?
    QA 204
    In green coffee, what is the meaning of European and American Preparation? And Brazil ‘Swedish’?
    QA 206
    Are peaberries inferior? If not, why do certain buyers object to them?
    QA 207
    Can a coffee be rejected even if the quality was formally certified at origin?
    QA 210
    Does espresso coffee contain less caffeine than traditional brews?
    QA 224
    What chemical changes occur during coffee processing?
    QA 233
    Would air-conditioning improve green coffee storage in hot climates?
     

    13 - Climate change and the coffee industry

    QA 192
    Can coffee growers, especially smallholders, benefit from carbon offsets?
    QA 235
    Does (organic) coffee production affect climate change?
     

    14 - Training and the coffee industry

    No Q & A found for this chapter.