As of end 2009 it is obvious that the industry is still in the preliminary stages of trying to transform strategy into action. Much information has to be collected whereas potential methodologies and solutions not only need to be identified but must also be tested.*Nevertheless, a considerable amount of activity is ongoing or planned as listed below (in chronological order where possible):**13.03.04.1 CATIE: the Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza in Costa Rica worked on Carbon Capture and Development of environmental Markets for Indigenous Cocoa Farms and Other Agroforestry Systems. Duration 2004-2006. A technical manual was developed on how to estimate carbon.Contact: Eduardo Somarriba, email@example.com CATIE, CIRAD and the University of Bangor in the CAFNET project Sustaining Environmental Services in Coffee Agroforestry in Central America, East Africa and India are conducting research into the tradeoffs between the provision of environmental services and profitability of coffee production, and the dynamics of C in shaded coffee systems, to determine how management practices may affect the carbon balance of the production system. Visit http://web.catie.ac.cr/congreso/congreso_ENG.htm or Contact: Jeremy Haggar at firstname.lastname@example.org, ***13.03.04.3 The University of Campinas in Brazil has published a number of studies on both climate change and the mapping of climate change that provide important information, both as regards methodology and as regards impact, for different crops including coffee. Visit http://www.cpa.unicamp.br and look under Cepagri for the August 2008 report entitled 'Global Warming and the New Geography of Agricultural Production in Brazil' by Hilton S. Pinto and Eduardo D. Assad.13.03.04.4 GTZ and Cafédirect - Adaptation for smallholders to Climate Change is a public-private partnership project between Cafédirect plc (www.cafedirect.co.uk) and the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ - http://www.gtz.de/en) that aims to strengthen coffee and tea smallholders' capacities to adapt to climate change and to enhance their access to respective financing mechanisms. Implementation commenced with pilot producer groups in Peru, Nicaragua, Mexico and Kenya. The overall objective is to disseminate the results and lessons learned from the 4 site-specific adaptation strategies that each pilot implemented throughout 2009 or is still implementing, and to scale up to a much wider footprint with more international partners.
The adaptation strategy of the Peruvian pilot group focuses around an afforestation carbon project that, although located in a higher water catchment area, is providing adaptation effects in the lower coffee producing regions. Duration 2007-2010. Visit www.adapcc.org for more.For details including a complete set of project documents, project fact sheets and a number of very relevant background presentations visit http://www.adapcc.org/en/downloads.htm.Visit http://www.gtz.de/en/themen/3958.htm for more on GTZ and climate change generally.13.03.04.5 Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in the Kenyan Coffee Sector is a public private partnership between the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ - http://www/gtz.de/en) and Sangana Commodities Ltd (a subsidiary of Ecom Industrial Trading Corporation Ltd - www.ecomtrading.com) that looks at improving the Kenyan coffee sector's capacity to adapt to climate change and consider mitigation options such storing GHG in their production systems. The aim is to develop a standard module that allows coffee producers to adapt production as well as create and use synergies between adaptation and mitigation methods. Further partners are the World Bank's BioCarbon Fund and the 4C Association. Duration 2008-2011.13.03.04.6 CIAT - the International Center for Tropical Agriculture is engaged in an ongoing Clean Development Mechanism land reclamation project in Colombia - the Caribbean Savannah Carbon Sink Project. The objective is to pilot the use of carbon sinks (through sylvo-pastoral and reforestation systems) as a tool to arrest the process of land degradation and to develop a project cycle map showing the road to marketable CER's. Whilst not directly linked to coffee, once the feasibility of the approach is proven the project is also expected to serve as a catalyst for future such initiatives elsewhere. The detailed project appraisal report is available at http://go.worldbank.org/9CQ0H62MA0 or visit http://www.ciat.cgiar.org 13.03.04.7 CIAT: the International Center for Tropical Agriculture also runs the 'CUP - Coffee Under Pressure' project that intends to quantify and evaluate the impact of climate change on coffee production in Central America: Nicaragua, Guatemala and El Salvador. And, to identify site-specific community based adaptation options and strategies that are applicable to and feasible for rural communities. This project started in June 2009. For more information visit http://www.ciat.cgiar.org whereas a comprehensive presentation can be seen at http://www.adapcc.org/download/PLaderach_CCimpactsAgriculture.pdf.13.03.04.8 UNCCD - Using Biochar (charcoal) to replenish soil and carbon pools, restore soil fertility and sequester CO2 is a submission by the UN's Convention to Combat Desertification-UNCCD. Go to www.unccd.int/ and search for Biochar to obtain the full text. For technical information and background go to http://www.carbon-gold.com. who are the developers. A pilot project is under way in cocoa plantations in Belize.13.03.04.9 Coffee and Climate Change Program - Building a Sector-wide Initiative: is a Private Public Partnership started by International Coffee Partners (ICP - www.coffee-partners.org), Luigi Lavazza SpA, Gustav Paulig Ltd., Tchibo GmbH and German Technical Assistance (GTZ) that plans to evaluate and interpret the impact of climate change on producers and processors along the green coffee value chain up to export level. The initiative furthermore plans to screen and further develop effective adaptation strategies and mitigation approaches. Once formulated these will be widely disseminated in the form of a toolbox that will also identify suitable financing mechanisms. The results and the implementation thereof will likely be tested in four coffee producing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America.13.03.04.10 Starbucks and Conservation International's Sustainable Coffee and Climate Change Partnership is supporting projects in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas in Mexico, and amongst communities living within the Northern Sumatra Biodiversity Corridor in Indonesia. The aim is to address local climate change challenges through sustainable land-use including forest conservation, and by helping create different mechanisms to enable local communities to participate in the growing international carbon market. Ultimately, Starbucks and CI hope to leverage their global scale to pilot such projects across all coffee-growing regions: Asia-Pacific, Africa and Latin America. Duration 2008 - 2013.See http://dev2.conservation.org/learn/food_security/Pages/ci_starbucks_partnership.aspx. for more.13.03.04.11 "Promoting Climate Friendly Coffee Farming" is a pilot initiative developed by Anacafe (www.anacafe.org), the Rainforest Alliance (www.rainforest-alliance.org), Efico (www.efico.com) and the Efico Foundation (www.eficofoundation.org) to research, test and promote criteria and practices that will help farmers mitigate climate change and adapt to its impacts. The pilot project aims to develop a robust set of climate criteria that indicate best climate practices in coffee production and processing activities. Implementing these practices will help farmers adapt to the effects of a changing climate, reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increase levels of carbon stored on their farms. Key project activities include measuring carbon storage on selected farms, testing assumptions regarding best management practices to reduce GHG emissions and developing a methodology to verify and monitor compliance with these best practices. Collectively, these criteria and practices will be bundled as a "Climate Module" - a voluntary, add-on module to the existing Sustainable Agriculture Network standard (a leading sustainability certification). Participating farms can be audited against this module to demonstrate their compliance with the adaptation and mitigation climate criteria and their adoption of climate-friendly practices. The pilot initiative in Guatemala is now being expanded upon to address new crops (cocoa and tea) and regions (West Africa, East Africa and Southeast Asia) through a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is expected that in the near future, "climate friendly" coffee and other products will be available in the market. Contact: Rosa Maria Aguilar (Anacafe, email@example.com ), Gianluca Gondolini (Rainforest Alliance - firstname.lastname@example.org) or Katrien Delaet (Efico - email@example.com).13.03.04.12 Genetic breeding initiatives are of course ongoing worldwide but to mention just twoThe Instituto Agronomico de Campinas in Brazil - IAC (http://www.iac.sp.gov.br/) and others are working on the possibility of transferring some of the characteristics of robusta to arabica, such as resistance to pests, vigour and above all, better resistance to higher temperatures.The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute - ICCRI (www.iccri.net) and Nestlé's R&D Department in Tours (France), announced that starting 2009 they will work jointly on developing higher yielding robusta plants with improved resistance to drought and disease.* Some projects are mentioned more than once in this chapter because they 'overlap' in that they look at adaptation/mitigation options as well as carbon offset credit options.** Other initiatives, aiming particularly at generating carbon offset credits are listed in section 4 of this chapter.*** The CATIE home site (www.catie.ac.cr) offers a considerable amount of relevant information, also in English.The site below lists a total of thirteen climate change related projects, together with individual contact details. http://web.catie.ac.cr/congreso/congreso1_ENG.htm.Alternatively visit theSpanish language coffee site and the Spanish language climate change site.