Unlike bagged coffee in containers, bulk coffee in
lined containers can be transported and stored outside for limited periods
fairly safely (on condensation, see sections 05.02.02, 05.02.03, 05.02.05).
Under ECC rules containers may therefore be weighed and sampled at inland
stations provided they were on-carried within 14 calendar days of arrival at the
seaport and were weighed and sampled within 7 calendar days of arriving at the
inland station. (Whether or not carriers raise any extra charges for such extra
time is between them and the receiver.) This permits large receivers to take
delivery at inland terminals. They then call the containers forward just in time for direct discharge at the
The objective of the just-in-time (JIT) supply line
principle is to carry only the immediately necessary physical stocks, with
planned arrivals to make up for
drawdown. Large trade houses have the capacity to supply JIT direct from their
own stocks but cannot supply all a roaster's requirements, also because roasters
do not want JIT to limit their purchasing options. The alternative is to buy
from smaller exporters and origins 'basis named vessel' where the buyer dictates
the shipping line and the vessel to be used.
Receivers too are expected to take all reasonable
measures to avoid condensation occurring, especially in winter. If the goods are
not required for some time then they will be discharged in a port silo complex
for call-up when required. Many ports now offer dedicated silo storage
facilities or 'silo parks', which receive and store bulk. Services include
blending and cleaning/sorting on demand. Deliveries to roasting plants are then
made in bulk trucks that discharge by tilting, or in bulk bags. Some bulk trucks
are compartmentalized and can hold different qualities, which are discharged
separately by a conveyor belt that runs below the compartments.
Coffee in bags now increasingly goes to a silo
installation for transformation into bulk, obviously at a cost.