• Glossary - roasted coffee

    Brilliant, bright: Extremely bright, appears to have an oil-like surface.

    Brokens: Self-explanatory. Presence of small elephant beans which always break apart during roasting.

    Burnt: Over-roasted.

    Centre cut: The dividing line of silverskin running through the flat side of the bean.

    Chaff: Silverskin that peels off during roasting.

    Dullish, dull: Lacking lustre. Associated with processing and age.

    French roast: The beans are roasted high enough to bring the natural oils to the surface.

    Hard: A desirable roast with a dark grain which, when crushed or ground, gives the full and desirable aroma of coffee.

    Italian roast: Beans roasted a degree darker than the French roast. (This is for Europe; in the United States the French roast is darker.)

    Mottled: Mottled beans are caused by uneven drying. They are not always too detrimental to cupping when the coffee is fresh, but coffee of this type will not keep long and deteriorates in transit.

    Mailliard Effect: Name of the chemical transformation that takes place within the beans during roasting.

    Open: An open bean is one in which the centre cut is inclined to split on roasting. Some open beans derive from lighter coffee; of these, some can be eliminated in the washing channel, and some by air or gravity separators at the mill. However all open beans are not necessarily light coffee. Also typical of coffee grown at lower altitudes.

    Ordinary: Self-explanatory.

    Pales and semi-pales: Yellow in colour, they may stink when crushed or ground. Pales come from immature or drought-affected coffee and are beans with little or no grain. These can largely be eliminated in the washing channel. Amber beans and green parchment beans also frequently cause pales in the roast.

    Ragged or deformed: Ugly misshapen beans, semi-elephants, and drought-affected coffee.

    Softs: Good quality coffee is often spoiled by the presence of softs. Soft beans have no grain, and are often of a dull yellowish colour. Coated raw beans often produce softs to pales.
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